# What are the rules for carrying forward net operating losses?

Business losses may be deducted against other income sources; however, they will be subject to limitations. Noncorporate taxpayers may be subject to excess business loss limitations. The at-risk limits and the passive activity limits are applied before calculating the amount of any excess business loss. An excess business loss is the amount by which the total deductions attributable to all of your trades or businesses exceed your total gross income and gains attributable to those trades or businesses plus \$250,000 (or \$500,000 in the case of a joint return).

Most taxpayers no longer have the option to carryback a net operating loss (NOL). For most taxpayers, NOLs arising in tax years ending after 2017 can only be carried forward. The 2-year carryback rule in effect before 2018, generally, does not apply to NOLs arising in tax years ending after December 31, 2017. Exceptions apply to certain farming losses and NOLs of insurance companies other than a life insurance company. Also, for losses arising in taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2017, the net operating loss deduction is limited to 80% of taxable income (determined without regard to the deduction).

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