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What are logical controls?

Logical controls are preventative controls that apply information technology software’s and systems to prohibit unwanted access to information within a computer system. Nonphysical access controls are also referred to as logical controls. These will prevent information assets from being accessed electronically.

Logical controls that can prevent access to an organizations informational asset include:Authentication of unauthorized users from being permitted to access a company’s systems

1) User identification (e.g. username and passwords)

2) Password management: Passwords are generated to protect access from outside, unwanted users of information. This is a method that is applied to only enabling access to those who are authorized. Passwords have certain characteristics that will allow them to become more preventative than others.

3) Network firewalls: Parts of computer systems or networks that are designed to block unauthorized access while permitting outward communication.

4) Data encryption: A security method that applies information that is encoded and can only be accessed or decrypted by a user with the correct encryption key. Encrypted data will also sometimes appear scrambled or unreadable to a person or entity accessing it without permission.

5) Access control lists: Tables that tell a computer operating system who has the right to access it. Rights very per user and allows them to have a particular objective (e.g. accessing a file directory or individual file).

6) Digital certificates: A digital certificate is an electronic “password” that allows a person, organization to exchange data securely over the internet using the public key infrastructure (PKI). 

7) Data encryption: Data encryption is the process of encoding information so that only the recipient with the ability to decipher the text can do so.

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